• Quantified by Isaac Newton
  • Universal attraction among all bodies everywhere
  • Gravitational attraction between two objects:
    • Fgravity=GM1M2R2F_{gravity} = G \frac{M_1M_2}{R^2}
      • FgravityF_{gravity} is the force of gravity between two objects
      • M1M_1 and M2M_2 are the masses of two objects
      • RR is the separation of those objects
      • GG is the universal gravitational constant

Universal Gravitational Constant

  • 6.67Ɨ10āˆ’11m3/(kgs2)6.67 \times 10^{-11} m^3 / (kg s^2)

Escape Velocity

  • Velocity needed to escape from gravitational pull of an object
  • Escaping an orbit of an object
  • Formula:
    • vescape=2GMRv_{escape} = \sqrt{\frac{2GM}{R}}

Physics Astronomy