• Reasoning
    • Evidential
      • Giving real evidence for certain reasoning
    • Pragmatic
      • Giving no evidence for certain reasoning



  • Chapter 4.1: Earth and Sky
    • Learning objectives:
      • Describe how latitude and longitude are used to map Earth
      • Explain how right ascension and declination are used to map the sky
  • Chapter 4.2: The Seasons
    • Learning objectives:
      • Describe how the tilt of Earth’s axis causes the seasons
      • Explain how seasonal differences on Earth vary with latitude
  • Chapter 4.3: Keeping Time
    • Learning objectives:
      • Explain the difference between the solar day and the sidereal day
      • Explain mean solar time and the reason for time zones
  • Chapter 4.5: Phases and Motions of the Moon
    • Learning objectives:
      • Explain the cause of the lunar phases
      • Understand how the Moon rotates and revolves around Earth
  • Chapter 4.6: Ocean Tides and the Moon
    • Learning objectives:
      • Describe what causes tides on Earth
      • Explain why the amplitude of tides changes during the course of a month
  • Chapter 4.7: Eclipses of the Sun and the Moon
    • Learning objectives:
      • Describe what causes lunar and solar eclipses
      • Differentiate between a total and partial solar eclipse
      • Explain why lunar eclipses are much more common than solar eclipses
    • The Sun and the Moon have the same angular size (0.5˚)
      • The Sun is 400x larger in diameter than the Moon
      • The Sun is also 400x farther away