Straw Man

  • Distorting, weakening, or oversimplifying someone's position so it can be more easily attacked or refuted
  • Often includes poor paraphrasing, taking a quote out of context
  • Covertly replaces the original proposition with a different, weak one that is easily defeated


Self-driving Cars

  • Elon Musk
    • Self-driving cars are a natural extension of active safety
    • Something we should do
  • Reporter
    • Self-driving cars aren't safe
    • Points to self-driving accident
  • Elon never stated self-driving cars are 100% safe
    • Accident is taken out of context


  • Scientist
    • Explains how animals developed and diversified over millions of years
  • Opponent
    • Questions why monkeys still exist if we evolved from them
    • Why don't we have three arms or other things to give us competitive advantage?
  • Opponent is misunderstanding the theory
    • Poor use of the theory
    • Evolution does not say we evolved from monkeys (just have a common ancestor)

Fallacy Argument Philosophy