• Fundamentals of Metaphysics
  • Our beliefs are kind of like maps and the World is the territory of the map
    • Realist view: we can know about the World that exists external to us (realism)
  • Anachronistic
  • Basic components of the World
    • Particulars
      • Things you can interact with
    • Cause and effect
    • Properties and relations
      • Relations could be seen as properties of pairs, triples, etc.
      • Provide structure to reality
      • What Plato called the Form
    • Propositions
    • Possible states of affairs
      • Including facts
  • Propositions vs. properties
    • Related
    • Both conceptual, or intelligible, components of reality
    • Can one be derived from the other?
  • Propositions use internal objects
    • Meanings are components of one's subjective world
    • Relating this to maps...
      • Towns on a map are not the actual towns in the world
    • So, propositions appear to exist mostly in the mind
Proposition (statement, thought)Possible state of affairs
True propositionFact (actual state of affairs)
Internal object (idea)External object
Epistemic probabilityObjective chance
  • Realism vs. anti-Realism

  • Natural kinds

    • Some human concepts that are more "real" than others
    • Capture real divisions of reality better
  • So, what is truly objective?

    • To a realist
      • The actual world
      • The "totality of facts"
  • Dividing the actual world into bite size facts may be a human construct

    • Even if so, the World determines whether or not a given proposition is true or false
  • Psychologism

    • Laws of logic
  • Are propositions psychological?

    • If they were, they could change over time
  • What is existence?

  • What turns a state of affairs into a fact?

    • Facts seem to have an extra ingredient of real existence
      • Concreteness
      • A concrete object is one that can be causes and effects
        • Contrasted with abstract objects that are non-causal (accessible only to the mind)
    • Is this extra ingredient a property?